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Fact Sheet

July 23, 2019

Public Broadcasting Fact Sheet

    MORE FACT SHEETS: STATE OF THE NEWS MEDIA

    Hundreds of local and regional radio and television stations comprise the U.S. public media system. On the radio side, organizations such as NPR, American Public Media (APM) and Public Radio International (PRI), which merged with PRX in 2018, produce and distribute programming, reaching audiences through local stations as well as digital channels. Individual stations, such as New York’s WNYC and Chicago’s WBEZ, produce nationally syndicated original journalism as well. On the television side, PBS NewsHour produces an evening newscast that airs on local PBS stations around the country. The organization has a digital operation as well. On the whole, the news offerings of U.S. public broadcasters have been marked by relative financial stability and, in the past year, little to no audience growth. Explore the patterns and longitudinal data about public broadcasting below.

    Audience

    The top 20 NPR-affiliated public radio stations (by listenership) had on average a total weekly listenership of about 11 million in 2018, about the same as in 2017. (This includes listeners of NPR programming as well as original or other syndicated content aired on these stations.)

    Weekly broadcast audience for top 20 NPR-affiliated radio stations

    Year Listenership
    2015 8,724,100
    2016 10,212,600
    2017 11,210,500
    2018 11,047,900

    Pew Research Center

    When looking specifically at NPR programming across all stations that carry it, terrestrial broadcast listenership declined somewhat between 2017 and 2018. (Traditional radio listening is “terrestrial,” i.e., coming from radio broadcast towers rather than satellites or the internet.) About 28.5 million average weekly listeners tuned in to NPR programming during the year, down from 30.1 million in 2017, according to internal data provided by the organization.

    Programming from PRI, which distributes programs such as The World and The Takeaway, reached a terrestrial audience of about 9.7 million on average per week, up from about 8.8 million in 2017. (PRI and PRX merged in August 2018, but the data presented in this fact sheet is for PRI programs only.) Audience figures from APM, which produces Marketplace, remained stable at 20.1 million average weekly listeners in 2018, on par with 20.5 million in 2017.

    Weekly broadcast audience of NPR, PRI and APM

    • National Public Radio
      (NPR)
    • Public Radio International
      (PRI)
    • American Public Media
      (APM)

    NPR’s broadcasting reach remained stable between 2017 and 2018 in terms of both the number of member stations (stations either owned or operated by member organizations) and the number of stations airing any NPR programming (which includes member stations). The number of member organizations – flagship educational and community organizations that operate at least one station – stood at 263, on par with the previous year.

    Broadcasting reach of NPR

    • NPR stations
    • NPR member organizations

    For both PRI and APM, the number of stations airing their programming remained more or less stable between 2017 and 2018.

    Broadcasting reach of PRI and APM

    • PRI stations
    • APM stations

    NPR’s digital platforms continue to be an important part of its reach. The NPR One app, which offers a stream of individual shows and podcasts, had a similar or slightly higher average number of total completed sessions in 2018 as in 2017, depending upon the device. (A completed session is any instance in which a user starts and stops using the app.) The NPR News app, which offers livestreams from individual stations and digital content, declined in completed sessions among Android and iPad users. (Data for the NPR News iPhone app is unavailable for 2018.)

    Monthly sessions on NPR apps

     App 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
    NPR News: Android 2,913,814 3,613,494 5,005,041 8,242,722 6,756,099
    NPR News: iPhone 6,947,956 7,826,679 11,433,558 14,502,478
    NPR News: iPad 2,734,069 1,610,358 1,630,880 1,488,862 1,248,160
    NPR One: Android 460,263 1,326,320 2,396,494 2,984,181
    NPR One: iPhone 758,531 2,649,326 4,462,950 4,506,901

    Pew Research Center

    The audience for public television programming declined over the past year: In 2018, the NewsHour program, which airs on PBS, attracted 1.1 million viewers on average, down 6% from the year before.

    PBS NewsHour viewership

    Year Total average viewership
    2016 1,007,000
    2017 1,187,000
    2018 1,110,000

    Pew Research Center

    Economics

    The financial picture for news outlets in public broadcasting appeared strong both locally and nationally.

    At the national level, NPR increased its total operating revenue in 2018 to $252.1 million, up 8% from 2017 levels. PRI gained as well, rising 4% to about $18.8 million in total revenue for 2018. (PRI and PRX merged in 2018, but the data presented in this fact sheet is for PRI programs only.) APM’s total revenue, on the other hand, fell 20% year over year, amounting to $134.7 million in 2018. (According to APM, a change in accounting practices caused a one-time reduction in revenue recorded in 2018, and these revenues should substantially recover in 2019.)

    Total revenue for NPR, PRI and APM

    • NPR
    • PRI
    • APM

    At the local public radio level, an analysis of the public filings provided by 123 of the largest news-oriented licensees (organizations that operate local public radio stations) shows that in 2017 – the last year for which reliable data is available – total revenue for this group was $904.7 million.

    Local public radio station revenue

    Year Total revenue
    2008 $672,802,561
    2009 $643,940,194
    2010 $686,136,170
    2011 $749,103,474
    2012 $748,813,191
    2013 $782,737,012
    2014 $828,887,471
    2015 $816,934,539
    2016 $852,897,571
    2017 $904,711,768

    Pew Research Center

    This revenue for local public radio comes from a range of streams, but individual giving (which includes member revenue and major gifts) and underwriting (from businesses and foundations as well as other nonprofit organizations) are two key sources of funding. Among the 123 news-oriented licensees studied here, individual giving and underwriting accounted for a combined $595.5 million in revenue in 2017.

    Individual giving and underwriting revenue for local public radio news stations

    Year Individual giving Underwriting
    2008 $252,188,412 $191,368,970
    2009 $266,879,214 $169,783,646
    2010 $273,641,191 $169,662,827
    2011 $297,404,887 $170,980,687
    2012 $301,896,974 $183,138,683
    2013 $316,851,081 $183,378,779
    2014 $329,574,209 $195,853,661
    2015 $352,159,144 $204,335,864
    2016 $362,070,403 $209,451,245
    2017 $383,819,720 $211,637,752

    Pew Research Center

    The total number of individual members – defined as anyone who has given money to one of the stations owned by these 123 licensees in each calendar year – in 2017 was 2.3 million, about a 10% increase over the previous year.

    Local public radio station membership

    Year Total membership
    2008 1,665,924
    2009 1,743,232
    2010 1,790,393
    2011 1,940,486
    2012 1,956,201
    2013 2,016,449
    2014 2,103,547
    2015 2,046,745
    2016 2,087,018
    2017 2,292,509

    Pew Research Center

    On the television side, NewsHour derives its revenue from a variety of sources, including PBS, the Corporation for Public Broadcasting (CPB) and a mix of “nonpublic” streams such as corporations, individual giving and foundations. While the details about public sources of revenue were unavailable for this analysis, NewsHour did provide information about its breakdown of nonpublic funding. In 2018, contributions from individuals comprised 13% of total nonpublic funding. (Information on whether the total amount of this funding rose or fell was also unavailable.)

    PBS NewsHour nonpublic funding makeup

    Year Individuals Corporations Foundations
    2014 3% 41% 56%
    2015 6% 23% 71%
    2016 11% 19% 70%
    2017 13% 17% 70%
    2018 13% 17% 70%

    Pew Research Center

    Newsroom investment

    Program and production expenses for the 123 news-oriented local public radio licensees was $446.8 million in 2017, compared with $439.6 million in 2016. While program and production expenses comprise only a portion of overall station expenses, an increase in these kinds of expenditures indicates that the stations are directing more dollars toward the creation of news content.

    Local public radio station expenses

    Year Total program and production expenses
    2008 $327,421,171
    2009 $339,869,569
    2010 $343,679,417
    2011 $363,060,881
    2012 $374,386,544
    2013 $375,165,424
    2014 $396,766,427
    2015 $415,016,962
    2016 $439,623,671
    2017 $446,778,558

    Pew Research Center

    Find out more

    This fact sheet was compiled by Senior Writer/Editor Elizabeth Grieco.

    Read the methodology.

    Find more in-depth explorations of public broadcasting by following the link below: