Methodology: How Crimson Hexagon Works
To arrive at the results regarding the tone or frame of discussion on social media, Pew Research used computer coding software provided by Crimson Hexagon. That software is able to analyze the textual content from billions of posts on blogs, Twitter and Facebook. Crimson Hexagon (CH) classifies online content by identifying statistical patterns in words.
Use of Crimson Hexagon’s Technology
The technology is rooted in an algorithm created by Gary King, a professor at Harvard University’s Institute for Quantitative Social Science. (Click here to view the study explaining the algorithm.)
The purpose of computer coding in general, and Crimson Hexagon specifically, is to “take as data a potentially large set of text documents, of which a small subset is hand coded into an investigator-chosen set of mutually exclusive and exhaustive categories. As output, the methods give approximately unbiased and statistically consistent estimates of the proportion of all documents in each category.”
Universe of Social Media
Crimson Hexagon software examines online content provided by RSS feeds of millions of blogs and social media from the U.S. and around the world. This provides researchers with analysis of a much wider pool of content than conventional human coding can provide. Specifically, the monitors Pew Research creates are based on more than several million blogs, and hundreds of millions of publicly available Twitter and Facebook posts. CH maintains a database of all stories and posts available—numbering into the billions—so texts can be investigated retroactively.
Monitor Creation and Training
Each individual study or query related to a set of variables is referred to as a “monitor.”
The process of creating a new monitor consists of four steps.
First, Pew Research staff decide what timeframe and universe of content to examine – blogs, posts on the major social media sites Twitter and Facebook or some combination. Unless otherwise noted, Pew Research only includes English-language content.
Second, the researchers enter key terms using Boolean search logic so the software can identify the universe of posts to analyze.
Next, researchers define categories appropriate to the parameters of the study. If a monitor is measuring the tone of coverage for a specific politician, for example, there would be four categories: positive, neutral, negative, and irrelevant for posts that are off-topic in some way.
If a monitor is measuring framing or storyline, the categories would be more extensive. For example, a monitor studying the framing of conversation about the death of Osama bin Laden might include nine categories: details of the raid, global reaction, political impact, impact on terrorism, role of Pakistan, straight account of events, impact on U.S. policy, the life of bin Laden, and a category off-topic posts.
Fourth, researchers “train” the CH platform to analyze content according to specific parameters they want to study. Pew Research analysts in this role have gone through in-depth training at two different levels. They are professional content analysts fully versed in Pew Research’s existing content analysis operation and methodology. They then undergo specific training on the CH platform including multiple rounds of reliability testing.
The monitor training itself is done with a random selection of posts collected by the technology. One at a time, the software displays posts and a human coder determines which category each example best fits into. In categorizing the content, Pew Research staff follows coding rules created over the many years that the Center has been content analyzing news media. If an example does not fit easily into a category, that specific post is skipped. The goal of this training is to feed the software with clear examples for every category.
For each new monitor, human coders categorize at least 250 distinct posts. Typically, each individual category includes 20 or more posts before the training is complete. To validate the training, Pew Research has conducted numerous intercoder reliability tests (see below) and the training of every monitor is examined by a second coder in order to discover errors.
Once the training is complete, the software culls through and classifies the entirety of the identified online content according to the statistical word patterns derived during the training.
How the Algorithm Works
To understand how the software recognizes and uses patterns of words to interpret texts, consider a simplified example. Imagine the study examining converation regarding the death of Osama bin Laden that utilizes the nine categories listed above. As a result of the example stories categorized by a human coder during the training, the CH monitor might recognize that portions of a story with the words “Obama,” “poll” and “increase” near each other are likely about the political ramifications. However, a section that includes the words “Obama,” “compound” and “Navy” is likely to be about the details of the raid itself.
Unlike most human coding, CH monitors do not measure each story as a unit, but examine the entire discussion in the aggregate. To do that, the algorithm breaks up all relevant texts into subsections. Rather than the dividing each post, paragraph, sentence or word, CH treats the “assertion” as the unit of measurement. Thus, posts are divided up by the computer algorithm. If 40% of a post fits into one category, and 60% fits into another, the software will divide the text accordingly. Consequently, the results are not expressed in percent of newshole or percent of posts. Instead, the results are the percent of assertions out of the entire body of posts identified by the original Boolean search terms. We refer to the entire collection of assertions as the “conversation.”
Testing and Validity
Extensive testing by Crimson Hexagon has demonstrated that the tool is 97% reliable, that is, in 97% of cases analyzed, the technology’s coding has been shown to match human coding. Pew Research spent more than 12 months testing CH and its own tests comparing coding by humans and the software came up with results that meet our high standards of reliability.
In addition to validity tests of the platform itself, Pew Research conducted separate examinations of human intercoder reliability to show that the training process for complex concepts is replicable. The first test had five researchers each code the same 30 stories which resulted in an agreement of 85%.
A second test had each of the five researchers build their own separate monitors to see how the results compared. This test involved not only testing coder agreement, but also how the algorithm handles various examinations of the same content when different human trainers are working on the same subject. The five separate monitors came up with results that were within 85% of each other.